the "First Reich," to be followed by the Hohenzollern "" and the Hitlerian "." With more modest retrospection, we can simply equate "Germany" with the old East Frankish kingdom ().
The crown of Lombardy, or , involved no Italian institutions or effective power and was assumed perfunctorily with the Imperial crown; so it is not indicated after Otto I acquired it through his marriage to the Italian heiress Adelaide, who had been imprisoned after her husband, Lothar II of Italy, had been murdered by Berengar II of Ivrea.


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