Men raised in a culture that values the suppression of distressing emotion may express depressive symptoms in a way that varies from traditional diagnostic observations. Termed , these symptoms are often mistaken as normative male behaviors (Cochran, 2005; Pollack, 1998). While some of the traditional DSM symptoms of depression might be present, masculine-specific symptoms can include irritability, increased interpersonal conflict, increased alcohol, food, or drug (illicit or legal) intake, somatic complaints, a desire to be alone, work-related complaints, and difficulty with concentration and motivation (Cochran & Rabinowitz, 2000). Shame has also been implicated as a key component in men experiencing depression, both as a potential cause, and also as a self-judgment for not being able to overcome its symptoms (Shepard & Rabinowitz, 2013).


Satisfied customers are saying