In July 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt selected Major General Adna Romanza Chaffee to replace Brigadier General Arthur MacArthur as military governor of the Philippines, and William Howard Taft as civil governor. MacArthur had successfully subdued the Filipino rebellion on Luzon by late 1899. Interestingly, MacArthur’s son Douglas, first in his 1903 graduating class at West Point, later became the famous General of U.S. forces in the Philippines, in the South Pacific, who accepted the Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, and who oversaw the occupation of Korea and later commanded the U.S./U.N. forces for the first part of the Korean War. Chaffee had been a decorated officer in his campaigns against American Indians, had served in the Santiago campaign in Cuba in 1898, and in quelling the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. As the new Military Governor of the Philippines he supervised the final mop-up operations against the insurgent guerrillas. Taft had been U.S. Solicitor General, and was later to be Teddy Roosevelt’s Secretary of War prior to his being elected twenty-seventh President of the U.S. (1909-1913). By the time the last of the guerrilla bands had surrendered or been killed in June 1902, nearly 5,000 U.S. military had been killed. But the estimates of Filipinos killed in the nearly three-and-a-half year campaign of U.S. “scorched earth” policy ranged from 200,000 to 600,000, many buried in mass graves.


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