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Welcome to the Book of Mormon Archaeological Forum
Geologists believe that Patagonia was at one time part of Antarctica.
Perito Merino glacier (Argentina)
Stop #8: Tierra Del Fuego
"Land of Fire"
Lapatala Bay, Tierra Del Fuego National Park
Part III: GEOGRAPHY of South America
I can list and locate important landforms and bodies of water in South America
I can define geographical terms such as a rainforest, plain, and archipelago
I can list natural resources found in South America and how they impact the world economy
Part IV: History
I can explain the culture & history of the Inca people
I can explain the origins of the Inca Civilization and where they settled
I can explain the effects of the Spanish conquistadors on native cultures
"December 20th, 1832.
Geography of Panama - Maps of World
The D. crenulata clade seems to have diverged gradually from the late Oligocene onwards (>25 Ma) with the most recent inferred divergence dated at ca. 3 Ma. The early splits in the Eastern-Pacific-Atlantic clade (EPA-clade) show no obvious signature of a vicariant event across the Central American Isthmus. The putative earliest diverging lineages, D. spiralis and D. pinnatifida have an exclusively Atlantic distribution and Pacific – Atlantic sister relationships are to be found only between D. crenulata#1 – D. implexa/crenulata#2 and Dictyota cf. caribaea – D. sandvicensis. The diversification estimates of these sister lineages predate the effective closure of the Tropical American Seaway (3.1 Ma). Similar observations have been reported for many marine organisms including seaweeds –. Although we cannot rule out that our molecular clock analysis overestimates divergence times, it is likely that the final closure of the Panama Isthmus was not the initial cause of divergence between populations. The uplift of the Panama Isthmus was a complex process that took place over at least 12 Ma before completion at ca. 3 Ma , , and the final closure of the land bridge may have acted as barrier reinforcement after divergence had been initiated by oceanographic events –. Moreover, the eventual uplift of the Panama Isthmus was followed by major extinctions in the western Atlantic , which can lead to overestimation of divergence times since trans-isthmian species pairs may not be true sisters , .
Central America - Credo Reference
We determined the geographical distribution of the species on the basis of DNA-confirmed records, complemented with credible literature data and re-examined herbarium specimens. Dictyota ciliolata is broadly distributed in the tropical to subtropical Atlantic and Indo-West Pacific. The northernmost DNA-confirmed record is located in North Carolina and the southernmost in Carnac Island in Western Australia. Genuine D. crenulata (D. crenulata#1) is restricted to the Pacific coast of Central America, from Costa Rica to Baja California. Non-Pacific specimens morphologically identified as D. crenulata, resolved as three separate species, which are all confined to the Atlantic Ocean. Dictyota crenulata#2 occurs in the Canary Islands, Madeira and Cape Verde. Dictyota crenulata#3 has an amphi-Atlantic distribution occurring in the Caribbean Sea, Bermuda and Cape Verde Islands. D. crenulata#4 is only known from the Canary Islands. The non-dentate members of the D. crenulata clade, D. implexa, Dictyota cf. caribaea, D. mertensii, D. cymatophila and D. sandvicensis show similar geographically confined distributions, with only D. implexa having an amphi-Atlantic distribution ().
Integrated paleontologic and paleomagnetic …
Native Americans worked on plantations (haciendas), Mestizos lived outside the city, and the rich lived in the city
Who are Mestizos?
People of mixed Spanish & Native American descent
(FYI, Mulattos refer to people mixed with European, African, and/or Spanish descent)
Viva la Revolution!
Led by this former slave, he and many others fought against their French slave masters for freedom
The conflict lasted 10 years until they gained independence in 1804
Present-day Haiti, Latin Americans started rebelling
What is a revolution?
A political movement where the people overthrow a government and set up another
Other examples in history?
Agustín de Iturbide
Mexico began fighting for independence in 1810
Rebel groups fought against Spanish government
Iturbide was an officer in the Spanish army until he joined the rebels
By 1821, Mexico declared its independence
South America's "George Washington", he was a revolutionary leader, fighting for Venezuelan independence in 1804
By 1822 he became the President of Gran Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama)
With help, by 1825 only Cuba and Puerto Rico were still ruled by Spain (Portugal gave Brazil its independence during this time also)
Geography of Latin America
is dominated by mountains, between the mountains lies the
Central Mexican Plateau
its higher elevation means a more moderate
This region is geologically active with
occurring from time to time
More than a dozen of the mountains are active volcanoes!
Did an Open Panama Isthmus Correspond to an …
We analysed branch length dynamics in the ultrametric psbA tree to delimit species. The likelihood of the GMYC model was significantly higher than that of the null model of uniform (coalescent) branching rates (). Using the single-threshold GMYC, the depth (T) from the branch tips at which the transition occurred was 0.00469 substitutions per site. The model estimates 39 putative species, with a confidence interval ranging from 34 to 43. The multiple-threshold model detected the same number of putative species, although with a markedly broader confidence interval, from 21 to 39. Dictyota ciliolata and D. crenulata were resolved in five GMYC lineages under both models (). Dictyota crenulata consists of four GMYC lineages: one Pacific Central American lineage, two Macaronesian lineages and one amphi-Atlantic lineage. Several non-dentate Dictyota species, Dictyota cf. caribaea, D. cymatophila, D. implexa, D. mertensii and D. sandvicensis, also fall within this D. crenulata clade. In contrast to D. crenulata, all specimens identified as D. ciliolata form a single GMYC lineage, which also includes the morphologically allied D. menstrualis and D. plectens. Sequence divergence, calculated as uncorrected p-distances (see in Supporting Information), within these putative species ranged from complete identity to 0.8% with 95% of the values equal or lower than 0.7%. Distances among species ranged from 1% to 10.2%.