In 2003, two lawsuits involving the University of Michigan's affirmative action admissions policy reached the U.S. Supreme Court Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger. In the first case, the court upheld the law school's admissions policy citing "a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body," while in the second it ruled against the university's undergraduate admissions policy, which relied on a more formulaic point system.


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