Two important issues remain unexplored. First, while research has documented the effects of multimedia on ELLs, many of these studies are situated in elementary or middle school contexts. Yet, preschool is a critical time period that requires further investigation considering the importance of laying an early literacy foundation in the language of school.2 Second, after establishing whether educational media is beneficial for young learners, studies need to understand how these programs effectively teach early literacy: What are the specific pedagogical cues found on screen that promote vocabulary development? How might these cues affect ELL and non-ELL preschoolers differently? Furthermore, do cultural relevance and translanguaging pedagogy play a role in facilitating second language vocabulary development on screen?


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