Socioeconomic status was measured by education, occupation, and income. Education levels were categorized as no education or primary education (up to approximately 6 years of education), lower secondary education (up to approximately 9 years), higher secondary education (up to approximately 11 years), and tertiary education (bachelor's degree or higher). Data on education level were available in a comparable form for most countries from both mortality registries and health interviews or multipurpose surveys. Occupations were classified as “manual” (considered the lower level) or “nonmanual.” Data on occupation were available from mortality registries for middle-aged men in a limited number of countries only. Income was categorized in approximate quintiles of equivalent net household income. The self-reported after-tax incomes of all household members, including benefits, were added, and the total was corrected for household size by dividing it by the total number of persons in the household to the power of 0.36. Income data were available from surveys in a limited number of countries only. Tables 2, 3, and 4 in the show the distribution of study populations according to education level, occupational classification, and income level. The proportion of the population with less education tended to be large in the southern and eastern regions, whereas inequalities in income were large in England and Wales and in Portugal.


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