The Son in is called the Son because he is not the historical figure Jesus, nor is he the risen Christ: he is the Son of God — a God-figure who sits at the right hand of the Father. Milton distinguishes between God the Father and God the Son by implying that the Father is invisible and ineffable, while Son is the Father "Substantially express'd" (). While the Father exists in the "pure Empyrean" throughout the epic, the Son as his substantial expression descends to Earth to judge Adam and Eve after the fall, and it is of course the Son who eventually will take human form in order to redeem mankind (). But the Son is not only an expression of the Father: Milton creates an identity for him that is far more complex than that when he addresses the issues of the Son's begetting and status in Heaven, issues that were controversial in Milton's time and have led many critics to speculate about Milton's own personal theology.


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