In the context of this report, modern slavery covers a set of more specific legal concepts including forced labour, debt bondage, forced marriage, slavery, slavery-like practices and human trafficking. Although modern slavery is not defined in law, it is used an umbrella term that focuses attention on commonalities across these legal concepts. Essentially, it refers to situations of exploitation that a person cannot refuse or leave because of threats, violence, coercion, deception and/or abuse of power. In order to make this set of complex legal concepts measurable, the Global Estimate focuses upon two key forms of modern slavery: forced labour (as per the International Labour Organization (ILO) Forced Labour Convention, 1930, No.29), and forced marriage (that is, marriage without consent).


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